You can help by adding to it. June Jewish populations have existed in the area even before the country was established , back to the Roman era province of Lusitania , even though an attested Jewish presence in Portuguese territory, can only be documented since CE. In , the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula was seen by many in the Jewish population as a liberation, and marked as the beginning of what many have seen as the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula the Islamic Al-Andalus , even if the Jews, as well as the Christians the Mozarabs of the Visigothic rite , under Muslim rule were considered Dhimmi , and had to pay a special tax. Rapidly in the 8th century, the Christian kingdoms of the north mountainous areas of the Iberian Peninsula Kingdom of Asturias started a long military campaign against the Muslim invaders, the Reconquista. The Jews, since many knew the Arabic language , were used by the Christians as both spies and diplomats on this campaign that took centuries. This granted them some respect, although there was always prejudice. Jewish communities had been established prior to these years, an example of Jewish expansion can be seen in the town of Leiria founded by King Alfonso I in The clergy, however, invoking the restrictions of the Fourth Council of the Lateran , brought considerable pressure to bear against the Jews during the reign of King Dinis I of Portugal , but the monarch maintained a conciliatory position. Until the 15th century, some Jews occupied prominent places in Portuguese political and economic life. Many also had an active role in the Portuguese culture, and they kept their reputation of diplomats and merchants.
See Article History Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Judaism is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham , Moses , and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions. Judaism is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology , law, and innumerable cultural traditions.
In the second section the beliefs, practices, and culture of Judaism are discussed. The history of Judaism It is history that provides the key to an understanding of Judaism, for its primal affirmations appear in early historical narratives.
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Raphael Whereas Ashkenazi surnames did not become common until the 18th century, Spanish Jews have used family names since medieval times and are used by their descendants to this very day. Although Sephardi and Ashkenazi names are distinctly different, many times they mean the same thing. Prior to the expulsion Spain was a golden era for Jews. Many fled to Portugal as refugees but were forcibly converted only five years later. Those that left Spain or escaped from Portugal were widely dispersed throughout the Ottoman Empire, Italy and South-Eastern Europe where they either joined existing Jewish communities or established new ones.
Salonica, Morocco, Izmir, Istanbul, Holland and The Island of Rhodes are only some of the places where thriving Sephardic communities were established. Many also fled to Gibraltar and North Africa because of its proximity to the Iberian Peninsula while others were able to flee to Israel or the New World. Most of the names listed below can be found among Inquisitional manuscripts, Church registrars, notarial archives and other ancestral records that go back for centuries in both the Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.
Sephardic surnames often denote places of origin and were directly related to geographical locations either before or after the expulsion in or were acquired during the forced wanderings caused by the exile. Many family names were related to one’s profession such as Melamed, Cabrera and Alhadeff. Like their Ashkenazi brethren, surnames such as Cohen and Levy are also found among Sephardic communities and denoted Cohanic or Levitic descent. Some Jews that chose to convert and stay in Spain after the edict of expulsion took upon the names of their Christian godparents but practiced their Judaism in secret until they were able to escape to nearby countries such as the Netherlands, England and France where they returned back to Judaism.
Italian, Spanish, French and Latin words are commonly found among most Sephardic surnames as many of the provinces and cities in the Iberian Peninsula derived their names from these languages.
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Definition[ edit ] Narrow ethnic definition[ edit ] In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of in Portugal by order of King Manuel I. Sephardic law and customs , Maghrebi Jews , Mizrahi Jews , and Jewish ethnic divisions The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader , religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations.
In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian or North African origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy, meaning a majority of Mizrahi Jews.
The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach Hebrew language , “liturgical tradition” used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur prayer book. A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad.
The term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim who are in fact Ashkenazi. Additionally, Ethiopian Jews , whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot , have recently come under the umbrella of Israel’s already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate.
Divisions[ edit ] The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today are largely a result of the consequences of the Royal edicts of expulsion. Both the Spanish and Portuguese edicts ordered their respective Jewish residents to choose one of only three options: In the case of the Alhambra Decree of , the primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain’s large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain’s Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in , and as such were not subject to the Decree or to expulsion, yet remained under the watchful eye of the Spanish Inquisition.
Discuss 48 The Torah does not forbid a man from having multiple wives. Abraham, Jacob, David and Solomon are notable examples of biblical figures who wedded more than one wife. A close reading, however, reveals that in virtually all cases where our forefathers took multiple wives, it was for a specific reason. Abraham married Hagar only after Sarah suggested that he do so because she and Abraham had no children together. Another classic example is Jacob.
He married Leah only because he was tricked into it by Laban.
Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient m is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions. Judaism is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable.
Links for other sections of this website at bottom of page The valuable information on this page has been provided by Lawrence H. D and MLS in an email responding to a question I asked him. I asked if I could share the information on this website and he graciously agreed. Dr Feldman is a very knowledgeable indexer, researcher and writer. I unfortunately do not have hs current email address. Telef 43 31, Madrid– a cheap little paperback as a very useful introduction to the subject.
There are published catalogues for the documents for the tribunals of Toledo and Murcia, but there is much that is not catalogued. The total holdings of Inquisicion records at the AHN consists of manuscript bundles and manuscript books. They are divided into the following sections: Please note that each tribunal was responsible for a large area including many communities. The Archivo Diocesano de Cuenca is an important source for that town a guide to them is in preparation.
You can help by adding to it. June Jewish populations have existed in the area even before the country was established , back to the Roman era province of Lusitania , or even before — an attested Jewish presence in Portuguese territory, however, can only be documented since CE. In , the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula was seen by many in the Jewish population as a liberation, and marked as the beginning of what many have seen as the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula the Islamic Al-Andalus , even if the Jews, as well as the Christians the Mozarabs of the Visigothic rite , under Muslim rule were considered Dhimmi , and had to pay a special tax.
Rapidly in the 8th century, the Christian kingdoms of the north mountainous areas of the Iberian Peninsula Kingdom of Asturias started a long military campaign against the Muslim invaders, the Reconquista. The Jews, since many knew the Arabic language , were used by the Christians as both spies and diplomats on this campaign that took centuries. This granted them some respect, although there was always prejudice.
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Arrive in Barcelona and transfer to your centrally located Barcelona hotel. Later visit Montjuic Jewish mountain and see the Shoah Memorial dedicated a very special landscaped site and the museum with Jewish gravestones from the Middle Ages. Also the Museum of National Art of Catalonia where you can view gothic religious paintings depicting conversions of Jews to Christianity.
Head first about 20 miles north of Girona to the pretty medieval village of Besalu. It was discovered in Near the Mihah, where most Jews lived, there used to be the synagogue, which is called schola in written documents of the period. The synagogue was built in thanks to a privilege granted by Jaume I el Conqueridor. Later return to Girona and overnight.
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Other delegations were sent by the Hasmonean rulers in and B. After the Romans invaded Judea in 63 B. Many of those who visited Rome stayed and the Jewish population began to grow. It shows the triumphal parade with the Temple vessels carried aloft. While the treatment of Jews by the Romans in Palestine was often harsh, relations with the rulers in Rome were generally much better. Julius Caesar, for example, was known to be a friend of the Jews; he allowed them to settle anywhere in the Roman Empire.
According to historians, when Caesar was assassinated by Brutus in 44 B. His successor, Augustus, also acted favorably toward the Jews and even scheduled his grain distribution so that it would not interfere with the Jewish Sabbath. Two synagogues were founded by slaves who had been freed by Augustus 14 C. Twice in the Classic period, Jews were exiled from Rome, in 19 C.